Malcolm X African American rights activist was killed in February 1965. However, 55 years later, those convicted of this crime were acquitted. A mistake in the investigation of a high-profile crime was revealed after the release of the Netflix documentary series in 2020.
What interests were actually pursued by & nbsp; Malcolm X, & nbsp; still remains a mystery. He is considered by some to be an outstanding leader and activist for the rights of African Americans. Others & mdash; a radical who shattered civil society. His image is completely different from & nbsp; Martin Luther King , who called for rallying and renouncing violence. They are opposite in everything, from their appearance to the ideals in which they believed.
Malcolm believed that the idea of a peaceful coexistence of black and white Americans & mdash; Utopia. As a child, he and his family fled from Omaha (Nebraska) due to attacks from the local branch of the Ku Klux Klan. Later, the family was forced to flee from both Wisconsin and Michigan: they were persecuted by supporters of the far-right movements. Formally, the father of the family Earl died in a car accident, but his widow Louise always blamed the Black Legion for what happened. ( racist organization, & mdash; & nbsp; ed. note ).
The Malcolm family constantly faced humiliation due to their skin color. In order to somehow survive, he decided to rob. Together with his accomplices, he robbed several households. It was the sentence and the prison that changed him beyond recognition. While in prison, he joined the Nation of Islam movement, which also advocated for the rights of blacks. His brother Reginald handed over to prison brochures with statements by the leader of the Nation of Islam & nbsp; Elijah Muhammad , who believed that African Americans & mdash; God's chosen people, and called white people “ blue-eyed devils. ''
Malcolm X. Photo: Commons.wikimedia.org
Playing in the dark
It was at the insistence of Muhammad that Malcolm changed his last name and became X. He believed that changing his last name would free him from being given by the “ white devil-slave-owner '' nicknames (Little & mdash; small, insignificant, & mdash; & nbsp; ed.). After he was released, his political and ideological career took off sharply.
He called on African Americans to rally, and defended them during baseless detentions. His popularity among his compatriots grew. By early 1963, Malcolm X had actually become the second person in the organization after the main ideologue Elijah Muhammad.
Disappointed in the leader, the fiery orator decided to leave the Nation of Islam. He discussed Muhammad with other followers of the movement and literally six months later became his enemy number one.
Malcolm founded the Islamic Mosque Corporation, a religious group and the Organization of African American Unity, imbued with the meanings of traditional Sunni Islam. He no longer criticized whites or called on African Americans to separate from other races.
X's transformation hit hard on the power of Elijah Muhammad. Ickx was persuaded to meet with extreme right-wing extremists. Muhammad hoped that the help of the Ku Klux Klan would allow African Americans to gain a separate territory in the southern United States. This would bring both groups closer to fulfilling the dream of the “ racially pure '' states in the United States. But he refused to participate in the joint action to eliminate Martin Luther King.
Malcolm X was killed while performing in front of the Organization for African American Unity. Photo: Commons.wikimedia.org
'We must make him leave'
At a secret meeting in the fall of 1964, the leader of the Nation of Islam told his comrades-in-arms that “ the main hypocrite bathed him in the mud '', and now “ we must make him leave. '' In other words, Muhammad ordered to kill Malcolm.
His car got into an accident, the apartment was thrown with Molotov cocktails … But the fatal shots were fired on February 21, 1965.
Кто-то из зала выкрикнул: «Ниггер! Take your hand out of my pocket! '' Malcolm X's bodyguards tried to calm the audience, but a man jumped up from the front row and started shooting at the politician. Pathologists later counted 21 gunshot wounds on his body.
Nation of Islam supporters & nbsp; Thomas Haygan, & nbsp; Norman Butler & nbsp; and & nbsp; Thomas Johnson … But a few days later the investigation changed its version, declaring not a religious organization, but local drug dealers guilty of the murder.
In 2010, Tom Hagan , the only one who confessed to the attempt on Malcolm's life X, was released early from prison. He claimed that two other men were involved in organizing the murder, but they were not at all those who were arrested. Doubts about the guilt of Butler and Johnson back in 1969 were expressed by the journalist & nbsp; George Brightman.
Graffiti in San Diego, California. Photo: Commons.wikimedia.org
'They took important information to the grave'
After the release of the documentary mini-series & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; Netflix in the archives of the FBI found evidence witnesses who did not see the accused Butler and Johnson at the scene of X's murder. It turned out that the head of the FBI & nbsp; John Edgar Hoover & nbsp; personally ordered his informants to hide the fact that they are cooperating with the investigation. In addition, Tom Hagan made written statements in which he named other conspirators & mdash; & nbsp; William Bradley & nbsp; and & nbsp; Leon Davis, & mdash; but the police hid these testimonies.
The resonance after the release of the film forced the police to resume the investigation, although by that time all the defendants had already been released. Norman Butler changed his name to & nbsp; Muhammad Aziz, Thomas Johnson became & nbsp; Khalil Islam , and & nbsp; Thomas Haygan & nbsp; took the name Talmadge Hayer . As a result of the review of the case, Aziz and Islam were canceled the sentences. The last & mdash; posthumously. He died 12 years before the decision was made.
Due to the crushing failure of the investigation, many Americans believe that the authorities want to hush up the case. In the United States, they are perplexed: since these men are innocent, then who committed the crime and why the police do not disclose any details of the high-profile case?
“ A whole generation took to the grave important information that our contemporaries no longer recognize. And this is the most distressing '', & mdash; Says & nbsp; Zach Kondo, author of & nbsp; Conspiracies. The Truth About Malcolm X's Murder, '' researcher for African American human rights movements in the United States.
Malcolm X's murder remains unsolved to date.